Why keep track of your numbers?
If you have relapsed multiple myeloma, measuring the amount of M-protein in your blood is one way your
doctor can see how your treatment is working. Your M-protein level is a very important number to
keep track of. But there are many other numbers that can show how you are doing with your
KYPROLIS® (carfilzomib) treatment.1 Talk with your doctor about why your M-protein numbers and other lab numbers are important to your treatment.
Below you can learn about many types of lab measurements.
Complete blood count (CBC)
A measure of the number of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets in the blood.
These 3 types of cells are made in the bone marrow. With multiple myeloma, the cancer cells can crowd
out these normal cells. This can lead to low blood cell counts.2
White blood cells (WBCs)
A type of blood cell that fights infection and disease. Low WBC counts increase the risk of infection. If your count drops below 0.5 x 109/L, your doctor may change your dose of KYPROLIS.2-4
Absolute neutrophil count (ANC)
A measure of the number of neutrophils in the blood. Neutrophils are a type of white blood cell. They help the body fight infection.5
Red blood cells (RBCs)
A type of blood cell that carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of your body via the protein hemoglobin. Low RBC counts may mean you have anemia.6,7
A protein that carries oxygen in red blood cells. When there are too many myeloma cells, there might not be enough room for red blood cells in the bone marrow. This lowers Hgb levels.8-9
A part of the blood that helps blood clot to slow or stop bleeding. Low platelet levels increase the risk of bleeding. If your platelet count is less than 10 x 109/L, your doctor may change your dose of KYPROLIS.10
M-proteins (monoclonal proteins)
A type of abnormal protein made by multiple myeloma cells. Multiple myeloma cells are
cancerous plasma cells. High levels of this protein can damage organs. Measuring M-protein levels is one
way your doctor knows how well your multiple myeloma treatment is working.11
Serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP)
A test to measure the amount of M-protein in the blood. High levels of M-protein may be a sign of advanced multiple myeloma.1
Urine protein electrophoresis (UPEP)
A test to measure the amount of M-protein in the urine. The results can help your doctor find out if you have kidney damage. Kidney damage is a common complication when someone has multiple myeloma.1,12
A blood sample used to measure the amounts of certain substances in your blood. This sample
will help your doctor see how your kidneys are working. It can also help determine whether you have bone
damage and how severe your multiple myeloma is.1
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum
A test that measures the levels of nitrogen in the blood. Nitrogen comes from urea, a substance formed when the body breaks down protein in the liver. A high level of urea nitrogen in the blood may be a sign of kidney damage.13
A blood test that measures creatinine, a waste product created by your muscles. Creatinine is filtered out by the kidneys. High levels of creatinine may be a sign of kidney damage.1
Protein, total, serum
A test that measures the amount of 2 types of proteins in your blood: albumin and globulin. Proteins are important parts of all cells and tissues. Albumin helps prevent fluid from leaking out of blood vessels. Globulins are an important part of your immune system.14
Calcium, total, serum
A blood test that evaluates the calcium levels in your blood. Calcium is a mineral found mostly in bones. Too much calcium in the blood may be a sign that myeloma is causing bone to break down.1
Beta2-microglobulin is a protein found on plasma cells. Patients with multiple myeloma have a higher amount of this protein in their blood. The amount of beta2-microglobulin in your blood can help your doctor figure out how severe your multiple myeloma is. This can help your doctor decide what your treatment options are and the likely course of your disease (prognosis*).15
*Terms in burgundy can be found in the Glossary.
1. Referenced with permission NCCN Guidelines for Patients®: Multiple Myeloma V.1.2016. ©National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc 2016. All rights reserved. Accessed May 2, 2016. To view the most recent and complete version of the guideline, go online to NCCN.org. NATIONAL COMPREHENSIVE CANCER NETWORK®, NCCN®, NCCN GUIDELINES®, and all other NCCN Content are trademarks owned by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc.
2. Signs and Symptoms of Multiple Myeloma. American Cancer Society. Accessed March 21, 2016.
3. NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms. White Blood Cell. Accessed April 28, 2016.
4. KYPROLIS [prescribing information]. Thousand Oaks, CA: Onyx Pharmaceuticals Inc., an Amgen Inc. subsidiary; 2016.
5. NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms. ANC. Accessed May 19, 2016.
6. NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms. Red Blood Cell. Accessed April 28, 2016.
7. NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms. Anemia. Accessed April 28, 2016.
8. NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms. Hemoglobin. Accessed April 28, 2016.
9. How is Multiple Myeloma Staged? American Cancer Society. Accessed March 21, 2016.
10. NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms. Platelet. Accessed April 28, 2016.
11. NCI. Plasma cell neoplasms (including multiple myeloma) – Patient version. Overview. Accessed March 21, 2016.
12. IMF. Understanding Protein Electrophoresis, 2012. Accessed April 28, 2016.
13. NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms. Blood Urea Nitrogen. Accessed April 28, 2016.
14. NIH. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Total protein. Accessed March 21, 2016.
15. NCI. Plasma cell neoplasms (including multiple myeloma) Treatment – Patient version. Stages of Plasma Cell Neoplasms. Accessed March 21, 2016.